Developmental Reading Disorder (Dyslexia)

Dyslexia is a developmental disability in reading that results from the brain’s difficulty recognizing and processing certain symbols that are necessary to interpret language. A child’s early reading skills are based on word recognition, which involves the ability to isolate the sounds in words and associate them with specific letters or groups of letters. As such, children with dyslexia can also have difficulty understanding sentences.

In general symptoms include:
– Difficulty determining the meaning (idea) of a simple sentence
– Difficulty learning to recognize written words
– Difficulty rhyming

Dyslexia can also occur in conjunction with difficulty learning in other areas such as writing and math as they too are largely dependent on the interpretation of symbols.

A neuropsychological evaluation is useful in accurately diagnosing dyslexia by administering tests specific to reading, reading comprehension, and additional tests associated with other academic and thinking skills. In this way, a neuropsychologist is able to rule out other possibilities for reading difficulty such as emotional struggles, intellectual disability, certain medical or neurological conditions, and other cultural or educational factors that can affect a child’s learning. In addition, a neuropsychologist can recommend academic accommodations and interventions in school and at home that will assist your child in learning to read.

Mathematics Disorders (Dyscalculia)

A mathematics disorder is often present when a child’s math ability is far below what would otherwise be expected for their age, intelligence, and education.

Symptoms include:
– Difficulty reading, writing, or copying numbers
– Problems counting or adding numbers and making what appear to be simple mistakes
– Difficulty knowing the difference between addition and subtraction
– Difficulty understanding math symbols and word problems
– Errors in lining up numbers in the correct columns to perform math operations
– Difficulty arranging numbers from smallest to largest or vice versa
– Inability to interpret graphs

A neuropsychological evaluation can accurately diagnose and/or rule out other potential causes for your child’s math difficulty as well as provide recommendations for early intervention in school and home settings.

Writing Disorders (Dysgraphia)

Dysgraphia is learning disorder that is characterized by poor spelling, reduced legibility in handwriting, and difficulty communicating one’s thoughts on paper.

Symptoms include:
– Awkward body position and/or pencil grip when writing
– Poor handwriting
– Avoidance of writing or drawing
– Fatigue from writing
– Talking to self while writing
– Leaving sentence unfinished or omitting words
– Difficulty organizing thoughts on to paper
– Difficulty with syntax structure and grammar
– Disparity between written ideas and level of understanding communicated through speech

A neuropsychological evaluation can accurately diagnose and/or rule out other potential causes for your child’s writing difficulty as well as provide recommendations for early intervention in school and home settings.